I was curious about Raymond Schinazi's slide on "counterfeit" HVC treatments, so I did some more searching on Google.
* definition of "counterfeit": made in imitation so as to be passed off fraudulently or deceptively as genuine; not genuine; forged (dictionary.reference.com/browse/counterfeit).
In all fairness, I have no idea what Schinazi actually said when he showed that slide.
I just want to remind anyone who looks at his slides that "generic" does not automatically mean "counterfeit"... And in fact, most generics are perfectly legal if they are made and properly tested by an authorised manufacturer.
is made by Zydus Cadila, which has a "Voluntary Licence" with Gilead. So presumably the picture shown in Shinazi's slide is a counterfeit copy (not made by Zydus) of a licensed product.
are manufactured by Tongmeng (Laos) pharmaceutical and food Co. Ltd.
Laos is a "Least Developed Country" and is not listed as one the 91 countries to which Indian generic manufacturers that have a Gilead Voluntary Licence are allowed to export to. So like Bangladesh, Laos can legally manufacture its own hepatitis C treatments:
According to a web page of Dr Dunin, Deputy Chief Physician at PLA Hospital for Integrative Liver Disaease Treatment and Research, the Tongmeng company has been authorised by the Laos Ministry of Health.
So without strong evidence otherwise, it seems that Sofeni and Dactinna are legally authorised generics in Laos.
So, again, the picture of Sofeni and Dactinna shown in the slide is a counterfeit only if the product was not legally made by Tongmeng.
was apparently produced by a company called "LAFEPE", which was identified by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency) as being not registered to manufacture the product. ANVISA stated that the product is counterfeit.
But strictly speaking, this does not necessarily mean that the actual chemical formulation was not genuine, only that its manufacture was not authorised by an appropriate Brazilian government agency. So if the molecule was geuinine, it seems fair enough for Schinazi to call this a "true counterfeit" (if that is what he actually said).
* The term counterfeit should only be used for provably false or unauthorised products.
* Only a NMR spectrum can tell whether molecule is genuine or not: