I just opened a textbook for medical students from 1980s, doing a research on Hepatitis C. Here's the interesting thing: When looking for liver diseases, in particular Hepatitis, the table of content only lists Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. Where is Hepatitis C?

"There are some evidence that another virus (Hepatitis C?) is present in the liver."

This is the quote about Hepatitis C from 1980s. About 30 years later, we found a very successful cure consisting of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, daclatasvir and ribavirin treatment options, for a lethal disease. Let us have a look at a brief history of Hepatitis C.

History of Hepatitis C Treatment

It is almost impossible to know how long has Hepatitis C virus been around - we don't even have blood samples from lets say 50 years ago which could confirm the existence of HCV in 1960s.

Ancient History of Hepatitis C

The nature of many viruses inclines us to a conclusion that Hepatitis C virus has been around for a very long time. In fact, a close relative of HCV called  HGV/GBV-C originated in primates about 35 million years ago, according to some theories. 

Some scientist predict that the subforms of Hepatitis C (genotypes) originated about 500 years ago in West Africa. 

Nonetheless, the spread of disease hundreds of years ago was much slower than today. Hepatitis C is a transmitted via blood-to-blood contact, and 500 years ago there were no blood transfusions or needle injections which are the leading cause of Hepatitis C transmission in today's world.

Hepatitis A and B - The first suggestion there might be Hepatitis C

In 1960s and 1970s, scientists developed blood tests to identify hepatitis B (1963) and hepatitis A (1973), but many of the blood samples taken for post-transfusion illness tested negative for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. However, in addition to A and B, a virus in the liver was discovered. Because it was neither Hepatitis A or B virus, the newly discovered virus was named NANB Hepatitis. This stands for non-A non-B Hepatitis. 

Evidence suggest that more than 90% of patients diagnosed with NANB were actually Hepatitis C patients. 

Discovery of Hepatitis C virus and Blood Testing

The virus itself was identified in 1989. The discovery is credited to  the investigators from the Centers for Disease Control.

A year later, the screening of blood banks began but the method of Hepatitis C virus detection in blood used for transfusion was perfected in 1992. From that point on, only 1 blood bag out of 2 million is statistically infected with Hepatitis C. 

However, prior to 1992, there was no way of detecting Hepatitis C in donated blood and it is speculated that about 1 blood bag out of 200 was infected by Hepatitis C. Due to these blood transfusion prior to 1992, an approximate 300,000 Americans were infected by Hepatitis C via transfusion. These include many war veterans.

Particularly the generation of Baby Boomers were infected by receiving the Hepatitis C infected blood.

Discovery of first Hepatitis C treatment - Interferon

interferon treatment history of hepatitis c
The first Hepatitis C treatment was actually discovered earlier than 1989. In 1957, scientist discovered a treatment that was used more than 50 years for Hepatitis treatment - interferon. Primarily developed against Hepatitis A and B, it was also used to treat Hepatitis C patients.

The general treatment protocol was to inject 3 million units of interferon, three times a week for 48 weeks. Sustained virological response rates (negative viral load 6 months post-treatment) were approximately 9% for genotype 1 and 30% for genotypes 2 and 3.

Interferon name actually comes from its ability to 'interfere' with viral replication. The interference is not only useful against HCV but against other viruses as well. 

Inclusion of Ribavirin to Hepatitis C treatment

In 1998, FDA approved Rebetron - a treatment for Hepatitis C that included not only interferon but ribavirin antiviral drug molecule as well. This drastically increased the cure rate to about 30% for genotype 1 and 60% for genotype genotypes 2 and 3.

However, the cure rate was only 50%. Compared to sofosbuvir-based regimen of today, interferon is a much inferior treatment and is likely not going to be used for Hepatitis C treatment anymore.

During the following years, there has been some improvement in Hepatitis C treatment such as pegylated interferon and addition of some antiviral molecule to the regimen. However, the big breakthrough came with the DAA - direct acting antivirals such as sofosbuvir, ledipasvir and daclatasvir.

Hepatitis C Treatment Breakthrough

2012 was a year for DAAs. Several new Hepatitis C treatment candidates were very promising in Phase III clinical trials, yielding an outstanding 90-100% cure rates. Several pharmaceutical companies were involved in drugs development, each with its own DAA and regimen.

In 2013, the FDA has approved the first modern Hepatitis C treatment and the golden age for Hepatitis C treatment discovery started. Here are all the drugs that were recently approved for treatment of various genotypes of chronic Hepatitis C. 
  • Sovaldi (sofosbuvir) by Gilead Sciences
  • Harvoni (sofosbuvir and ledipasvir) by Gilead Sciences
  • Olysio (simeprevir) by Janssen
  • Daklinza (daclatasvir) by Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir and dasabuvir) by AbbVie
  • Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir) by Merck Co.
The new antivirals have an overall cure rate of above 90%, with mild side effects over standard 12-week treatment. 

The problem and the reason why so much media is featuring the stories about Hepatitis C, is the price of the treatment. Not a single of  drug above cost less than $50,000 in the US. Even US Senate became involved but the prices are still extremely high.

From interferon injections to a pill-a-day regimen
sofosbuvir pill hepatitis c history

From Hepatitis C discovery to a cure in less than 25 years

Hepatitis C is a serious disease and HCV is a very resilient type of virus. However, it took our combined science less than 25 years to discover and develop the cure - with Sovaldi being approved by FDA in 2013, we finally got a formidable medication against HCV. 

With only the cost being the major problem, we do welcome you to contact us at FixHepC Buyers Club and we will help you get Hepatitis C medications for a very affordable price. 







 
Hepatitis C treatment prices are one of the most discussed issues in the medical world today. The patients want lower prices. The doctors have spoken against the high prices, and even the US Senate had a hearing about it. But the price of Hepatitis C treatment remained the same even almost 3 years after the first modern treatment - Sovaldi by Gilead Sciences - was introduced. 

In January 2016, Merck joined the Hepatitis C treatment market with the launch of Zepatier, a new and effective Hepatitis C treatment. While the Zepatier's cure rates for genotypes 1 and 4 are very comparable with other existing treatments such as Harvoni and Viekira Pak, Zepatier has one thing going for it - a lower price point for treatment. Will the lower Zepatier cost be enough to bring down the cost of other Hepatitis C treatments?

Zepatier cost vs the cost of other Hepatitis C treatments

If the voices of patients, doctors and even the US Senate have no effect on how big pharma is pricing Hepatitis C treatments - because this is how capitalism works - will the introduction of Zepatier decrease these prices by presenting major competition? According to general capitalistic economics, the added competition will have a net effect on lowering the prices across the board. But this is pharmaceutical industry with its specifics - can we still count on economic laws to work here?

Let us take a look at the Hepatitis C treatment prices.
zepatier cost vs cost of other hepatitis c treatents

As we see from the graph, the first treatment Sovaldi's price point is $80,000, followed by Harvoni's $94,500 price point - to date, Harvoni cost of standard treatment is the highest. When AbbVie introduced Viekira Pak at $83,319 per treatment, the price of Harvoni didn't decrease - primarily because Harvoni has an advantage over Viekira Pak due to simpler regimen. 

Daklinza, introduced by BMS, also didn't manage to decrease the prices of other Hepatitis C treatments. However, the introduction of Zepatier with the lowest price point for modern Hepatitis C treatment at $54,600 might at least do something to decrease the costs. As we see, Zepatier cost is more than 40% lower than that of Harvoni, while the medications can arguably considered as very similar in effect. 

What has been done thus far to decrease Hepatitis C treatment costs?

Gilead Sciences, producer of Sovaldi and Harvoni, and the main player in Hepatitis C treatment market has thus far take two measures to react to the overwhelming pressure from all sides as far as the treatment cost reduction is concerned.

1. Gilead offers co-pay program for Hepatitis C patients covering 25% of Harvoni cost
2. Gilead gave licences to several Indian companies to produce generic Sovaldi and Harvoni to be sold in the third world countries

A good news is that majority of Hepatitis C patients can qualify for the Harvoni co-pay program. The price is reduced but it is still more than $70,000 per treatment. Generic Sovaldi and Harvoni are sold for less than $2,000 in India but one has to travel there to get them - this is where FixHepC Buyers Club steps in and helps patients to get it in a convienent way without the need to travel to India and bargain with the doctors and sellers there. 

How can Zepatier lower cost effect Hepatitis C treatment prices in the near future?

After Harvoni, Viekira Pak and Daklinza, two very successful Hepatitis C treatments were launched with a notably lower price point. However, Gilead remained unyielding and did nothing about the existing price of Sovaldi and Harvoni, despite the introduction of competition. This may be because Sovaldi and Harvoni have a strategical advantage over the new competition - Viekira Pak has a complex regimen (a patient has to take multiple pills per day) and Daklinza usually involves the use of sofosbuvir (an active ingredient in both Harvoni and Sovaldi), making both of them a tad bit inferior competitors.

Zepatier is the one we have been waiting for that can change the game. Not only does Zepatier offer a high cure rate for naive patients, the clinical research has revealed that in some patients who were already being unsuccessfully treated with interferon, Zepatier might have better clinical results than both Sovaldi and Harvoni - making Zepatier a contender to be reckoned with.

On top of this, Zepatier price of treatment is $54,600 in the US. In a normal economy, when you have two very comparable goods such as Harvoni and Zepatier, with one being much cheaper than the other, people will opt to go for the cheaper version. In this case, the only way for Harvoni to still be competitive, is to reduce it price and make it more comparable with the price of Zepatier.

Nonetheless, this is the pharmaceutical industry where things are not as simple as they might seem. Harvoni, being already launched for about two years, has build up a reputation as a safe and effective Hepatitis C cure. Zepatier is a new-comes - less known but cheaper. Only time will tell how this plays out but it is a hope of most of Hepatitis C community that the lower cost of Zepatier will help decrease the cost of Sovaldi, Harvoni, Viekira Pak and Daklinza due to the increased competition.
Insurance companies are a very important part of the lives of many Hepatitis C patients. With the effective new drugs costing up to $100,000, the majority of people are counting on their insurance companies to foot the bill. However, the staggering prices of Hepatitis C drugs present a crippling cost to many health insurance companies who might have a trick or two in the pocket to unlawfully deny Hepatitis C drug coverage to their clients.

NY Attorney General investigates insurance companies that denied Hepatitis C drugs to their clients

From the arrival of the first modern Hepatitis C treatment, patients and governments alike have been questioning the pricing of such treatments by Hepatitis C drug producers such as Gilead and AbbVie. The US Senate even had a series of hearings about the rising costs of drugs in the last years; the debates were largely derived from the abnormal prices of Hepatitis C drugs such as Sovaldi and Harvoni. 

The insurance companies are in many cases the ones who pay for the expensive treatments; but Hepatitis C drugs are giving even them a headache. Some cases of consumers lawsuits were drawn together in Massachusetts, where the local attorney general is continuing an inquiry if the state-operated Medicaid programs are in violation of a federal law by denying Hepatitis C patients access to a proven and effective medicine. 

Eric Schneiderman, the NY state attorney general, is picking up the trail - initially, he sent out two subpoenas to insurance companies questioning them about the practices of processing their client's request for the coverage of Harvoni; one of the most successful Hepatitis C drugs with a price tag of $94,500 per standard treatment. Up to date, the total number of subpoenas sent climb to 16. A person familiar with the investigation reported that all the major insurance companies such as Aetna, CareConnect, and EmblemHealth are involved and that Schneiderman is interested in processing documentation regarding the authorization of Hepatitis C drugs; in particular the documentation of Hepatitis C patients who were denied treatment coverage was requested. 

New York state Attorney General Eric Schneiderman​ investigates insurance companies on account of Hepatitis C drugs coverage practices
schneiderman hepatitis c drugs coverage

New York state Attorney General Eric Schneiderman’s office has issued subpoenas to 16 health insurers—which includes all major commercial plans in the state—requesting documents on the companies’ processes for authorising drugs used to treat hepatitis C and documentation on patients who have been denied coverage, said a person familiar with the investigation

Hepatitis C cases in New York City

hep c new york

Why is being truthful about Hepatitis C drug coverage a big deal?

Many cases in Hepatitis C world are a life or death situation - and this one is not an exception. If you are relying on the insurance company to cover the costs of Hepatitis C treatment, and you get denied, it is as close as most people will come to a death sentence. If everything is going according to the rules, we call it just; but according to the NY Attorney General something smells fishy about how insurance companies determine if a Hepatitis C patient is rightfully justified to have his or her treatment costs covered. In some cases, patients are denied Hepatitis C drug coverage because their liver is 'too healthy'. Having Hepatitis C is not enough to justify the costs of treatment according to some insurance company policies; in such a case, a patient can wait for his or her liver to be ruined just enough to justify the treatment - which is in itself morally and medically questionable.

Schneiderman believes that more than a thousand of patients have been denied coverage unlawfully. If he is right, insurance companies may well have scammed Hepatitis C patients out of more than $100 million in Hepatitis C drug coverage costs. 

The NY attorney general is also challenging some heavy-weights. Harvoni, for example, is not some secondary drug - just last year, Gilead Sciences sold $13,86 billion of Harvoni alone. With more than 150 million patients with Hepatitis C, this is one of the most prominent and best-selling medications in the history. Additionally, insurance companies have a lot to lose if they unlawfully denied Hepatitis C drug coverage to patients in need.

Notice for all Hepatitis C patients

The insurance company may cover the costs of your treatment, or not. Before you consider paying $94,500 for Harvoni, contact FixHepC Buyers Club and we will try to help you get the medications you need for less than $2000. Why should you be paying almost $100,000 for the medications that costed less than $1000 to produce?
The last two years or so have been very successful for Hepatitis C treatments. The revolutionary new line of drugs that was registered for chronic Hepatitis C since 2013 feature over 90% cure rates and a pill-per-day regimens. Asunaprevir is the latest drug that could provide an edge especially in patients who are difficult to treat. With a completely new mechanism of action, asunaprevir (the drug is already registered in Japan under the trademark name Sunvepra) might be very useful for the following patients:
  • Asunaprevir could benefit patients who didn't respond to prior therapy with Sovaldi, Harvoni, Daklinza, Zepatier and so on
  • Asunaprevir could also benefit who were medically ineligible or intolerant to previous treatment
Asunaprevir, produced by Bristol-Meyers Squibb, has recently undergone clinical studies and is currently used (limited countries) under its trademark name Sunvepra with Daklinza (daclatasvir). Different regimens with interferon and ribavirin are being tested, as well as interferon-free and ribavirin-free regimen. In a mid-stage study, a 24-week regimen with asunaprevir and daclatasvir was used for the treatment of difficult-to-treat patients and achieved a promising 77% cure rate.

How does Asunaprevir treat Hepatitis C?

We already have several drug molecules for the treatment of Hepatitis C that as asunaprevir are very effective at fighting Genotype 1 cases. These include sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, daclatasvir, ribavirin and so on. One important difference between asunaprevir and these drugs is the novel mechanism of action asunaprevir brings to the table. 

For example, the most well-known Hepatitis C drug sofosbuvir works by inhibiting  NS5B protein in Hepatitis C virus. Sofosbuvir is not used for treatment by its own; modern treatments fight Hepatitis C virus with 2 or more drug molecules. Harvoni, for instance, includes ledipasvir, an NS5A protein inhibitor, to more effectively fight HCV, and even the most basic Sovaldi (400mg sofosbuvir) regimen includes ribavirin or/and interferon.

Safe to say, it is important to have as many as possible drugs working in different ways to most effectively treat Hepatitis C, and asunaprevir is another useful way how to target HCV. What is important to understand is that viruses are a living matter (albeit scientist disagree if viruses are actually alive or not; they do agree on that they are able to change and adapt to the environment). If you have ever wondered why we have 6 genotypes of Hepatitis C virus, here is your answer - it is this adaptational ability that enables HCV to change and fight against the drugs that are used to fight it.

The solution: Hit HCV with everything we got at the same time. Hepatitis C treatment consists of two or more drugs to attack two or more targets in the virus. Asunaprevir offers us a new way to target the virus that proved to be very resilient to existing drugs. 

Asunaprevir Mechanism of Action

Asunaprevir (formerly known as BMS-650032) works unlike any other Hepatitis C on the market. The mechanism of action of asunaprevir is to target a specific HCV enzyme called serine protease NS3. This is an enzyme that virus needs for normal functionality and replication, and by blocking it, asunaprevir inhibits HCV ability to grow while immune system swoops in with antibodies to fight off the remaining virus.

Asunaprevir's molecular structure
asunaprevir

Sunvepra (100mg asunaprevir) is often partnered up with Daklinza (daclatasvir) for treatment. In such a way, daclatasvir can target NS5A protein while at the same time asunaprevir targets NS3. The virus can try to fight each of the drugs by changing its morphology, pumping out the drug, and so on, but if for example it can resist the attack of daclatasvir on NS5A protein, asunaprevir can still finish it off by attacking NS3 protein and impede HCV's ability to replicate.

Asunaprevir in Japan

Sunvepra which consists of 100mg of asunaprevir is currently not registered as widely as other Hepatitis C drugs. The treatment is used primarily in Japan and Russia.

In an official statement by Bristol-Meyers Squibb about asunaprevir, the chief scientist working on the project, Kazuaki Chayama of Hiroshima University in Japan, explain why asunaprevir was specifically registered in Japan. 

“Japan has a unique hepatitis C patient population, many of whom are older and have been unable to take, or respond to, traditional therapies, so we have a real sense of urgency to treat these patients now."

Nonetheless, some speculation about BMS's move to limit the countries in which they registered Sunvepra point out that it may have something to do with limited competition in Japan and Russia, and the problem of lower effectiveness of asunaprevir regimen compared to other Hepatitis C treatments.

When HCV becomes more and more resistant...

In the case of viral infections such as Hepatitis C, an arsenal of many different drugs can prove very useful in the long term. Viruses such as HCV have outstanding survival mechanisms which can even render a drug that was once had 100% cure rate ineffective. By broadening the number of molecules we have to fight HCV, we are reducing the risk of HCV resistance to drugs. For example, if HCV learns how to render sofosbuvir inactive, we have daclatasvir, ledipasvir, ribavirin and now asunaprevir to continue the fight.

 
Even before Sovaldi, the first modern antiviral medicine for Hepatitis C, obtained FDA's market authorisation, a group of scientists from University of Liverpool correctly predicted the looming problem - Hepatitis C drugs will become one of the costliest and thus hardly accessible drugs on the planet.

Dr. Andrew Hill and his team from the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, publish an article in prestigious Oxford Journals about how much it actually costs to manufacture modern Hepatitis C drugs on a large scale. The results might be very surprising, especially for people who were at the time paying $80,000 for 12-week treatment with Sovaldi. 

Production cost of Hepatitis C Drugs

When a pharmaceutical company discovers a novel drug, as was in the case of Sovaldi and company Gilead Sciences, the price that patients have to pay for it is substantially larger than the manufacturing cost for that drug. This is largely expected; a pharmaceutical company has to cover the costs of research and development, marketing, quality control and so on from the sales of the medicine. 

Breakdown of pharmaceutical company costs (2012) *Source: www.nature.com
where pharma companies spend money

In the case of Hepatitis C drugs, the production costs have no relation to the final cost of drugs like Sovaldi, Harvoni, Daklinza and Zepatier. Nonetheless, HIV drugs, which are very similar to Hepatitis C drugs, are being produced and sold at very low prices to more than 10 million of patients in third world countries. Dr. Andrew and his team tackled a question of how much would it cost to treat a Hepatitis C patient if we take into the account only the production costs.

Production cost of Sofosbuvir, Daclatasvir, Semiprevir - DAA (Direct Acting Antivirals)

The core of every drug is the API - active pharmaceutical ingredient. Hepatitis C is being treated with the use of 2 to 3 different APIs - we can also refer to them as direct acting antivirals (DAA). For example, the most basic modern Hepatitis C treatment includes Sovaldi with sofosbuvir as DAA and ribavirin which is by itself a DAA. Harvoni, for example, is a single-pill regimen that contains 2 DAA - sofosbuvir and ledipasvir.

The minimal cost for a therapy of Hepatitis C can be determined by determining the cost of production of these direct acting antivirals. Dr. Hill calculated how much does the production of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir and semiprevir regimen costs, based on how difficult it is to synthesize these direct acting antivirals and what is the dosage needed for a standard treatment. 

What is more, the formulated cost was based on the premises that at least 1 million patients per year need to be treated. This means that the production of sofosbuvir and other molecules can be done in bulk and economy of scale can drive down the costs dramatically. For instance, pound per pound the production of lets say 10 tons of sofosbuvir is much more cost efficient than the production of 1 kg of sofosbuvir.

The Liverpool team also accounted for the margin that is needed to make pills out of synthesised DAA - in their models, this margin was 40% of the cost. 

Production cost of Sofosbuvir for standard 12-week treatment

The results are somewhat surprising; while Gilead charges $80,000 for a single treatment with sofosbuvir, the majority of direct acting antivirals production cost was calculated to be between $0.2 and $2.1 per gram. For 12-week treatment, taking 400 mg of sofosbuvir per day, a Hepatitis C patient will take a total of 33.6 grams of sofosbuvir during the course of his or her treatment.

This brings the cost of sofosbuvir production for one treatment at $68-$136, or about $1 per pill. The current market price for a single 400 mg sofosbuvir molecule is about $1,000. Looking purely from this perspective, Hepatitis C treatment manufacturers like Gilead Sciences or AbbVie have a 100,000% margin on every pill they produce; and they produce millions of them every day. 

This also explains why it is still financially reasonable for originator companies to approve the production of generic version of Hepatitis C drugs. Such treatment, primarily made by Indian pharmaceutical companies, cost about $1000. There is still a hefty 1,000% margin attached that is shared between the originator company (Gilead, AbbVie) and Indian pharmaceutical company actually making the pills.

Production cost of Daclatasvir for standard 12-week treatment

Daclatasvir is a key ingredient in Daklinza, produced by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Treatment of Hepatitis C with Daklinza in the US costs a total of $63,000. But how much does the production of daclatasvir really costs?

Dr. Hill and his team at University of Liverpool determined that the production cost of daclatasvir for a 12-week treatment is only $10-30$. This is approximately how much a very good pizza costs; however, Bristol-Myers Squibb is pricing it beyond a price of a brand new Mercedes. 

Production cost of Semiprevir for standard 12-week treatment

Semiprevir is a direct acting antiviral in Janssen's Olysio. The production cost of the semiprevir was found to be $130–$270 for the standard treatment.

This might be a substantial cost for a production of an active molecule; however, it cannot compare with the actual price at which Janssen is marketing Olysio - $66,360.

Why are Hepatitis C patients paying over $50,000 for treatments that can be produced for less than $100?

In short, it is how the current pharmaceutical industry operated. Pharmaceutical companies have much flexibility as far as pricing is concerned; especially the originators where their drugs are basically the only such drugs available - it is an effective monopoly.

Officials from companies that produce Hepatitis C drugs often argue that the high prices of Hepatitis C treatments are based on the potential costs on alternative treatments. In this case, alternative treatment for Hepatitis C patients is a liver transplant which costs about $250,000 in the US. Namely, the cost of production of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir and other DAA has nothing to do with price on the shelf. Even if the whole regimen would cost less than $1 to produce, the pharmaceutical companies would most probably still price the medications above $50,000.

'$100-$250 per Hepatitis C treatment is feasible'

Dr. Hill and his team predict that in 15 years the prices of Hepatitis C production might come down because of the large-scale manufacturing. In theory, this could make Hepatitis C treatment available to patients in low-income countries. However, it is important to understand that the final pricing of a product is not primarily determined by its costs of production, but by interests of pharmaceutical companies for profit and the willingness of patients to succumb to higher prices since their lives are at stake.

Turn to FixHepC Buyers Club

A good news is that large-scale manufacturing is already bringing the cost of Hepatitis C direct acting antivirals down. The production costs are not as low as $100-$250 yet but with the courtesy of Dr. Freeman of FixHepC Buyers Club, you can avoid paying tens of thousands of dollars for the medications. The Buyers Club provides you with the direct acting antiviral drugs equally capable of curing Hepatitis C as Sovaldi, Harvoni, Olysio, Daklinza and so on, for a fraction of the cost. You can check the prices of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir here.

This is what Dr. Andrew Hill had to say about the profits in Hepatitis C treatment area. "Gilead has already sold over $32 billion of two hepatitis C treatments in just over two years, with profit last year of $18 billion. The continued profit projections for the oral hepatitis C drugs are staggering, and stand in no relation to what it costs to make these drugs."





 

PBS Pricing - Take a deep breath....

Saturday, 27 February 2016 03:42 Written by

So I guess like a lot of people I've been wondering how good a deal the PBS negotiated.

Last week I heard that a major public hospital had ordered 10 lots for $66,000 but thought that must be wrong.

Given the pharmacists have to order these medications I came up with the cunning plan of asking one. The prices were not available earlier in the week, but they are now.

Make of it what you will but the $22 k per month price for Harvoni looks like exactly the same as the price France and Germany negotiated and would allow 15,000 people to be treated for $1 billion.

G'day,

Here is a list of the three medications and the quotes from our suppliers. I did some further investigation after our phone call and found that the prices on the websites were completely wrong. I called the suppliers and got the correct quote. As such, I have not attached any screen shots - as these would be very misleading!

  • Daklinza 60mg 28 tablets- $7,736.30
  • Harvoni 90/400mg 28 tablets- $22,135.00
  • Sovaldi 400mg 28 tablets- $19,367.00
Stock for Daklinza is available for order, and so we can have this within 24 hours of ordering.

Stock for Harvoni and Sovaldi are not available with our suppliers yet, but they have ordered it - and so hopefully it isn't too far away (but they could not give me an ETA).

If you have any further questions please do not hesitate to ask either myself or J.

Kind Regards,

D
Here are some quick facts about Hepatitis C and US Army Veterans. Here is what US Army Veterans are required to pay for the two of the most successful Hepatitis C treatments:
  • $40,000 for Sovaldi (400mg sofosbuvir)
  • $68,000 for Harvoni (90mg ledipasvir/400mg sofosbuvir)

'Hepatitis C drugs price-gouging' - Bernie Sanders

The issue of extreme pricing of the novel Hepatitis C medications such as Gilead's Sovaldi and Harvoni is being raised time and time again. In Europe, the national health care systems are being challenged and endangered because of the billions that would be required to pay for treatment of Hepatitis C patients. In the US, the situation is even worse - on the home ground, the US-based pharmaceutical giant Gilead Sciences, producer of Hepatitis C medications, is charging up to $94,500 for a single Hepatitis C treatment. Safe to say, one of the most Hepatitis C endangered populations are the US Army Veterans and they are being appalled by the astonishing prices Gilead is demanding for the medications that can be produced for less than $1,000.

House Veterans' Affairs Committee on Hepatitis C

miller va hepatitis c
The Chairman of HVAC, Florida Republican Rep. Jeff Miller, who oversees where the budget for US Army Veterans goes, is outraged by the extreme pricing that is being used by Gilead. He went so far as to accuse the produced of price-gouging and 'picking and choosing' it's pricing models based on the target customers and location. For example, Gilead has made Sovaldi, a Hepatitis C drug, available for $900 in Egypt and 90 other countries around the world - at home, in the US, however, the endangered US Army Veterans have to pay $40,000 for exactly the same medications. In Miller's opinion, this is flat out considered an opportunism and an extortion of Army Veterans.

Bernie Sanders is taking on Gilead for Hepatitis C pricing

As early as in late 2014, Bernie Sanders, a current Democratic nominee for 2016 US presidency and, summoned a hearing about the practices of extremely high pricing in Hepatitis C treatment area. He is reported to be especially concerned with the heavy toll the costs of Sovaldi and Harvoni treatments have on Veteran Affairs annual budget.

Sanders invited Gilead executives to attend the hearing but was declined; as it happens, Gilead executives cited overseas business travel as an excuse not to attend the hearing.

"With numbers like these, we're not talking about a company looking to make ends meet, or even fund their next great medical breakthrough,” Sanders said. "We're looking at a company who is milking a cash cow for everything it's worth."

bernie va hepatitis c treatment
Pharmaceutical companies generally justify high costs of original medications because of the costs that went into research and development, and expected costs of R&D for the new products. In short, the incentive to innovate is driven by the funds raised of selling the previous drugs. Arguably, this is not the case in Hepatitis C and Gilead - Sanders stating they are milking Hepatitis C patients, US Army Veterans among them, for money that translates directly into corporate profits is quite on point.

How much do US Army Veterans pay for Sovaldi and Harvoni?

Sovaldi, the first modern Hepatitis C treatment was introduced in late 2013, and in 2014 the Veterans Health Administration helped to treat more than 5,400 Army Veterans. The total cost of these treatments was $370 million which is approximately $68,500 per veteran. Needless to say, that money could go a very long way if used for other benefits veterans might get. Paying for life-saving medicines for Army Veterans is a no-brainer but the reality of Hepatitis C treatment is its high cost. Will veterans see less of other benefits because a big amount of Veterans Affairs budget has to go to Gilead for Hepatitis C drugs?

Good (and bad) News for Veterans in 2016

Because of more than 200,000 veterans suffering from Hepatitis C and the high costs of treatment, the VA requested for additional funds for the 2016 fiscal year. Congress approved that $1.5 billion in total should go for treating US Army Veterans with Hepatitis C.

This is a very large amount gifted by the Congress but how far can it go? Considering that VA is paying the minimal cost for Hepatitis C treatment - Sovaldi for $40,000 - the number of veterans that can be treated with this budget in 2016 is 37,500. That may seem a lot but what if you're one of more than 162,500 veterans who won't get the treatment in 2016? Wait for another year in hopes you will get it while Hepatitis C virus is destroying your liver?

Turn to FixHepC Buyers Club

As always, FixHepC Buyers Club welcomes all Hepatitis C patient in search of low-cost Hepatitis C medications. We provide you with everything Hepatitis C patients need to get well for less than $2000 under a watchful eye of Dr. Freeman. Contact us for more information.

In the end, we leave you with the quote by Chairman of Veterans Affairs Committee:

“Government shouldn’t be in the business of telling private companies what to charge their customers,” Miller wrote. “[But] Gilead's price discrimination against American veterans and the organization established to care for them is a slap in the face to the millions who depend on VA health care as well as the taxpayers who generously fund the department.”

 
Today we bring you a staggering story about a UK-based surgeon who was diagnosed with Hepatitis C in 2008.

One of the biggest Hepatitis C stories of 2016

Jump to 2016: Yesterday more than 8000 of his former patients were mailed an invitation to take a Hepatitis C drug test and the story quickly hit the headlines of the most reputed news broadcasters such as BBC, DailyMail, The Guardian, Independent and Telegraph just to name a few.

The Surgeon

While NHS, UK's National Health Service, refuses to reveal the identity of the surgeon in question, they did notify the public the surgeon was largely based in and around the city of  Lanarkshire and have been practicing since 1982. Everybody over 26 years of age who was being treated was contacted to come to one of NHS's clinics for a quick and easy Hepatitis C testing.

NHS reported that the surgeon did not continue with the clinical practice after testing positive for Hepatitis C

Nonetheless, during those 26 years, more than 8000 people were being treated by the unrevealed doctor. All in all, 8,383 of former patients were contacted and notified that they are strongly recommended to take a Hepatitis C test. 8,031 are based in Scotland, 336 in England, 11 in Wales and 5 in North Ireland. 

Why did NHS wait 8 years before coming clean to the patients?

What is interesting in this case is the timing. Usually when a person is for example tested positive for HIV, they should immediately contact every sexual partner they had to warn them about the possibility of retracting HIV from them. This makes much sense since HIV is primarily transmitted via sexual intercourse. 

However, in this case with Hepatitis C, where we have an active surgeon treating more than 8,000 patients, NHS decided to remain quiet for 8 years. There is a low chance of getting infected with Hepatitis C via the surgical procedure but considering the seriousness of the disease and the sheer number of patients that were involved, many believe NHS should take the steps of bringing these patients to Hepatitis C test in 2008. Not in 2016.

So what make NHS change its mind all of a sudden?

Two patients contracted Hepatitis C while being treated

Until quite recently, it was discovered that two of the former patients that were being treated by an infected health care worker, has tested positive for Hepatitis C and are in need of treatment. The rationale here goes in the following way: if 2 patients had contracted Hepatitis C, then there is obviously a risk that any of the 8,000 patients who were being treated by the same person in a similar manner also had a chance, no matter how slim, to contract the disease. 

While arguments are being raised that NHS has been thus far dishonest about the subject and only came forward when it was 'caught in the act' with these two Hepatitis C positive patients, the administration of 2008 is refusing the be blamed for the incident.
NHS Officials defending their actions about not notifying the public and everybody involved in 2008
NHS Officials defending their actions about not notifying the public and everybody involved in 2008

Professor David Goldberg, UKAP chairman at the time, stated for the record that there was no available evidence about the possibility of surgeon's former patients to retract Hepatitis C.

Mr. Goldberg stated 'I think it's a very reasonable decision. It wasn't the wrong decision based on the evidence we had at the time.' He added that there is less than 1 in 1,000 chance that former patients being at risk of contracting Hepatitis C. 

Nonetheless, doing the math, 1 in 1,000 patients out of 8,000 patients would yield a total of 8 Hepatitis C patients. Now only 8 lives are thus at stake, NHS will have to care about treating them - and as we all know, being treated for Hepatitis C became easy but it also became much more expensive. The most sold Hepatitis C cure, Harvoni (90mg ledipasvir/ 400mg sofosbuvir), costs £39,000. For 8 patients, that would be more than £300,000 in total.

A very important thing for the former patients now is to respond to the call: Hepatitis C is a serious disease with no apparent side effects, and the only way to be sure you're not being infected by it is by taking the test. We do hope that all of 8,383 former patients will be tested and no-one will be infected. However, if some of them prove to be Hepatitis C positive...

Fortunately all of this is happening in the age of Sofosbuvir

... they can now be easily and effectively treated. 

In 2008, there was no miracle cure for Hepatitis C. The best the medical science had to offer were interferon injections with severe side effects, half a year long treatment and only about 50% cure rate.

Since 2013, pharmaceutical industry has been actively developing new Hepatitis C drugs such as Sovaldi and Harvoni, based on sofosbuvir drug molecule, Daklinza, based on daclatasvir, and a few others. 

Message to ALL Hepatitis C patients

Such instances are tragedies that people can barely climb over. Especially problematic here is the cost of Hepatitis C treatment. The UK case has shown us that many people can get Hepatitis C in the most innocent circumstances imaginable; but all of them will have to get the costly treatment. While NHS might admit it's mistake and foot the bill for all the patients that were infected by the undisclosed surgeon, most of Hepatitis C patients don't have the luxury of the government paying for their Hepatitis C treatment.

For all Hepatitis C patients in need of medications: Please do turn to Dr. Freeman for help. Contact us at FixHepC Buyers Club and we will make sure you will get your medications in a timely fashion and for a fraction of the cost of the original medications. 
 

Europe plans to eliminate Hepatitis C by 2030

Sunday, 21 February 2016 11:25 Written by
"What would have taken a hundred years for us to achieve, is now at hand!" were the first words of Prof. Angelos Hatzakis who serves at EU Council in Brussels as a co-chair of Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association. In light of recent discoveries, Europe has presented the so-called Hepatitis C Elimination Manifesto the purpose of which is to leverage European political power to secure a Hepatitis C free Europe by 2030.

On February 17 2016, the European Council has identified Hepatitis C as a 'silent epidemic in EU' and set out a plan on how to exterminate the very resilient viral liver infection. This is made possible by the recent discovery of sofosbuvir drug molecule and FDA approval for Sovaldi (400mg sofosbuvir) to be used to treat chronic Hepatitis C in as early as 2013. This has spurred the innovation in pharmaceutical industry as far as treating Hepatitis C is concerned, and as the result we have more than 5 very effective cures with which to fight Hepatitis C.
hepatitis c drugs
 

Hepatitis C Elimination Manifesto in Europe

In a key-note speech, Commissioner of Health and Food Safety (very similar to FDA in the US) Vytenis Andriukaitis, has demonstrated a strong resolve: "Hepatitis C has in the past been referred to as a "silent" epidemic within the European Union. It is high time that we brought this "silent" epidemic out of the shadows and into the light, so I welcome initiatives such as this Summit and the Elimination Manifesto to create momentum for action, for raising awareness and for stimulating discussion".

The policies that will drive Hepatitis C elimination in Europe were summed up. The purpose of the Hepatitis C Elimination Manifesto is to:
  • Make hepatitis C and its elimination in Europe an explicit public health priority to be pursued at all levels
  • Ensure that patients, civil society groups and other relevant stakeholders are directly involved in developing and implementing hepatitis C elimination strategies
  • Pay particular attention to the links between hepatitis C and social marginalisation
  • Introduce a European Hepatitis Awareness Week
This resolve will have a big impact on European public health and everybody connected to it.

Immigration only adds to Hepatitis C 'silent epidemic'

The new waves of immigrants to Europe is only adding Hepatitis C patients Europe will have to care of according to the Manifesto. In general, people immigrating to Europe from Syria and other Muslim countries thus far not been granted an access as efficient healthcare system as Europeans. As a result, the prevalence of Hepatitis C in people coming to Europe is greater and the extent to which Hepatitis C can reach if left unchecked, is now becoming far broader.

The Manifesto takes into the account the new-comers to Europe and has been, in the opinion of some policy leaders, created because of the extra Hepatitis C inflow into Europe that is happening today.

European Hepatitis C in numbers

This is the state of Hepatitis C in Europe.
  • There are 15 million Hepatitis C patients in Europe alone
  • Around 30,000 new patients are being diagnosed annually
  • Hepatitis C is 7 times more prevalent than HIV
  • Death related to Hepatitis C or Hepatitis C related illnesses have been rising in recent years. Data even suggests that in some countries the death toll in last 20 years went up more than 4 times
All in all, Hepatitis C in Europe is just as problematic as in the US or in Australia.

Who pays for Hepatitis C?

Here's the catch. The meeting on Hepatitis C was bought and paid for by pharmaceutical industry - companies such as AbbVie, BMS, Gilead and MSD. One might notice that all of these companies sell Hepatitis C treatments at extremely high cost - you can't get a Hepatitis C treatment below $50,000 from any of them. 

For example, Merck (MSD) paid for the meeting not even a month after they introduced their first Hepatitis C drug Zepatier.

If we take into account that the prices for Hepatitis C drugs will go down because of new Zepatier drug (which costs $54,600 in the US) and because governments can negotiate better deals, we might be even so courageous to state that Europe will have to pay $50,000 per one patients.

With 15 million patients and more coming every year, this is a $750 billion market. Now the incentive why all these pharmaceutical companies paying for European Council meeting become very much obvious. Carving even a small piece of that cake is literally worth 10s of billions of dollars. 

Europe, you're behind Dr. Freeman

Let us take one moment and realizing what Doctor Freeman is doing for all Hepatitis C patients. While big pharma is paying for legitimising their way of business that draws from tax-payers money, draining health care system and insurance companies, Dr. Freeman is a way before his time - more than a year before Europe even started discussing about curing the whole continent of Hepatitis C, Dr. Freeman already stated not talking or making policies - but actually curing Hepatitis C patients with affordable medications. 

While Abbvie, Gilead, Merck and BMS would need more than $750 billion to cure Europe, Dr. Freeman can procure Hepatitis C drugs for considerably lower costs directly from China. In such a way, treatment costs are lowered from over $50,000 to less than $2,000 per patients. Contact Dr. Freeman at FixHepC.com Buyers Club and we will work together to get you the medicines that Europe will be able to provide, if all works out as planned, by 2030 to every European citizen.



 
In the world of Hepatitis C patients, Twinvir started to pick on mythical proportions. It seldom happens that a generic drug, no matter how successful, becomes so quickly known to the patients who need it. Twinvir pills (sofosbuvir 400 mg / ledipasvir 90 mg) produced by Incepta Pharmaceuticals in currently one of the best-selling generic medications in the world. How did these pills from Bangladesh get so popular and well known?

Twinvir is a generic version of Harvoni - Meet Joe

Let's put ourselves in the shoes of Joe, a Hepatitis C patient, in late 2013. When Joe was diagnosed with genotype 1, he was told that he had Hepatitis C for more than 10 years but now things are starting to go bad for his liver. He needs a cure as soon as possible.

At that time the only cure available was treatment with interferon injections and supplemented by ribavirin pills. If Joe went with this treatment, there were 50% chances he'll get well in half a year. However, there is also 50% of chances that his liver will not respond to treatment.

New sofosbuvir-based treatment

buy twinvir online

Luckily, in December 2013 he got another option for treatment. Gilead Sciences, a pharmaceutical company, had just developed and started to market a Hepatitis C wonder drug called Sovaldi (sofosbuvir 400mg). According to clinical trials, the cure rate is more than 90% in only 12-week treatment. The newly developed Harvoni is even better. With his life in danger, Joe was very happy to see the miracle of modern science and was more than willing to go on treatment. 
However, what Joe did not plan is the price of the treatment. The price tag of Harvoni was $94,5000 per treatment. The meds do save lives but $94,500 is still a very large sum. This is where Twinvir enters the story.

Twinvir in third world countries

The company producing Harvoni, Gilead Sciences, was reaping sales record all over the US and Europe. However, they had major problems with third world countries - not only did they knew barely anybody in lets say India or Egypt will be able to afford the medicine at high prices, India additionally challenged Gilead because of the lack of innovation that went into developing the sofosbuvir molecule (it really does look like other antivirals). Consequently, as a matter of good will, Gilead gave licences to several Indian and other companies, including Incepta Pharmaceuticals, to produce generic Sovaldi and Harvoni. 

Twinvir is thus a miracle drug that was brought to market with quite a miraculous way. Usually, pharmaceutical companies use patents on molecules to keep generics out of the game for 10 years or more. However, Twinvir was being produced, sold and used for treatment only a good year after the first launch of Sovaldi. Produced in Bangladesh, many Hepatitis C patients from the US, Australia and Europe were looking a way to get the necessary medications - but why looking for Twinvir when you have the original version of Harvoni at your local pharmacy?

Twinvir cost - A $1000 price tag

Here the main reason why our patient Joe decided to go to Bangladesh and produce Twinvir - the cost of Twinvir. While Harvoni in the US costs $94,500, exactly the same pills (generic version) costs less than $1,000 in Bangladesh and India. This miraculous drug at low cost is known as Twinvir, and because many patients had a very good incentive to get it, Twinvir's availability and recognition came with it. 

There is a major difference between price of Twinvir and Harvoni but no difference in effectiveness. Generic medications have to be by regulation of equal effectiveness (measured by comparing bioavailability of both Twinvir and Harvoni) than the originals. What is more, in this case Gilead practically have the plans how to create sofosbuvir pills to Incepta as a part of their licencing agreement. 

Hepatitis C tourism to India to get Twinvir and other Hepatitis C drugs

When Gilead representatives were asked how will they fight patients seeking the low-priced Twinvir and other sofosbuvir-based medications from India, Gilead EVP Gregg Alton told the news service: "We aren't surprised; we knew this was going to happen. This is a reality of having these types of programs. As soon as a gray market develops, there isn't much we can do to control it at a pharmacy level."

In short, patients who are going to die without a cure, will rather seek out $1,000 cure than the $94,500. This is not surprising but it may not be 100% legal to do so. Nevertheless, as Gilead has little control over what patients can do, there is another factor to include - a moral factor. It is understood that pharmaceutical companies spend money for drug research, development, marketing and other costs, and still reap the enormous corporate profits. However, from moral standpoint, when lives are at risk, the business model should at least party change. In other words, if you have developed a cure for Hepatitis C, you are at least partially obligated to help Hepatitis C patients. 

What Gilead is actually doing is putting enormous price tags on the developed drugs - which is more considered health profiteering than helping people in need. People seeking Twinvir overseas is a natural response of the population that desperately needs the medicines. If you can get a whole treatment regimen of Twinvir for a single pill of Harvoni, you will be very inclined to buy it. 

In the end, Joe will more than likely decide to buy Twinvir than Harvoni. 

Here you can see a short video about Incepta's Twinvir, a low-cost version of Harvoni.

Twinvir on FixHepC.com forum

We had a lot of talk about Twinvir on our forum at FixHepC.com, and you're welcome to see what opinions patients had shared about Twinvir and ask them anything about the meds. Remember, they are the ones who have first-hand experience with it. You can access our forum here.

As always, there is a very easy and save legitimate way of getting generic Sovaldi or Harvoni. You can contact Dr. James Freeman and us and we'll help you get the medicines you need.


 

Gilead Sciences, a pharmaceutical giant, has launched very effective yet pricey drug for the Hepatitis C patients. The company justifies the $94,500 price of Harvoni and $84,000 for Sovaldi for a 12 week course on the basis of its success rate at curing the disease and preventing future costs of hospitalization, liver cancer and transplants.

Discovery of Sofosbuvir - One of the most effective Hepatitis C treatment molecules

The drug can save the patient from spending a fortune on a new liver if everything else fails. Gilead Sciences put billions of dollars in research and development; the result was the discovery of sofosbuvir - an active drug molecule that treats Hepatitis C. 400 mg of Sofosbuvir is present in Sovaldi costing around $1000 a pill while Harvoni is comprised both of sofosbuvir and ledispasvir. The price of a single Harvoni pill is $1,125.

Gilead gives licences production of Sovaldi and Harvoni in India, driving down the costs

The cost of treating Hepatitis C is very high in the U.S. and the insurers, employers and U.S. Health programs have raised an outcry against the hefty price of Harvoni. However, Gilead Sciences gave license to produce generic versions of Harvoni to several Indian generic pharmaceutical companies. Since majority of Indian population earns much less than the US population, India has been treated as a special case and the Indian government has negotiated a deal with Gilead to produce Sovaldi at $300 per bottle and $900 for 12 weeks course, costing just 1% of what the treatment cost in U.S. In part this happened because India failed to recognize the innovation by Gilead that went into discovering the miracle Hepatitis C treatment.

Here is how much Harvoni costs around the world.

harvoni cost around the world

Buying Harvoni and Sovaldi in India

There are several generic versions of Harvoni available by licensed Indian pharmaceutical companies at reduced prices, which include drugs like MyHep, Ledifos, Hepcinat, Twinvir, Hepcinat LP and Hepcvir. Thus, there has been a rise in Hepatitis C Tourism as more and more patients are flying towards India to get cheaper treatment for their disease. The patients without sufficient insurance to cover the costs of Harvoni are already on the move; there is no Medicaid or state-funded program available for them in the U.S. so they are jetting to India for treatment.

One of the patients landed in Chennai and apart from his $2000 travelling and hotel expense, he paid $1000 for the treatment and saved US$80,000.

Ordering Harvoni Online

However, the patient of Hepatitis C does not necessarily have to travel all the way to India to get the medicines which they can conveniently order online. Although, in most cases, buying medicines online is mostly discouraged, but there are some reputable and credible suppliers such as FixHepC.com that deliver life-saving Hepatitis C treatment worldwide in just 1-3 weeks.

If you go on your own, this is what you need to do: you need to contact credible pharmaceutical companies in India that have been given the license to produce generic Harvoni and talk to them about your condition. You need to send a doctor’s prescription and identity proof and an invoice will be sent by their side. You will be required to give your address and chose the payment mode to place the order. Once the payment has been made, the drug will be shipped to your home. Although, travelling to India for the treatment of Hepatitis C is a common sight and companies are even setting up medical related trips for their employees, but it is more a feasible option to order the drug online from licensed companies and save the travelling expense. In the end, the main purpose of the Hepatitis C patients is to get the drug which does not necessarily means to travel abroad.

If you let FixHepC.com help you, we will arrange everything for you and secure shipment of active molecules such as sofosbuvir and ledipasvir on your behalf. Contact us with your needs and we will work together to get you the Hepatitis C medications you're in need of.

How Does Hepatitis C effect the body - Effects of Hep C

Saturday, 13 February 2016 09:14 Written by
hepatitis c trasmissionHepatitis C is an infection that leads to the inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C can be transmitted from person to person in various ways; the most predominant via the use of drug injections (60%) as you can see on the pie chart on the right.

What does the liver do?

The liver is responsible for so many essential tasks in the body; it processes blood and filters toxins and ensures no harm will come to your body via their action. The liver is also tasked with producing bile which helps in food digestion, and stores glucose and vitamins. 

Liver inflammation

When the liver undergoes inflammation, it gets extremely difficult for it to carry out all its important tasks. Hepatitis C infection has an effect on the entire body when left untreated for a long time. Hepatitis C has some very subtle symptoms that can be looked out for - its early symptoms include fatigue and yellowing of the skin. These are mild and are unfortunately easily dismissed. As the infection is left free to grow, other serious symptoms such as fever, skin problems and blood disorder may appear.

Liver cirrhosis and the importance of Hep C treatment

Chronic liver infection leads to liver cirrhosis - the scarring of the liver. Treating Hepatitis C early helps prevent serious damage. On the other hand, leaving it untreated for years on end can lead to severe damage of the liver itself, liver cancer and consequently reduction in liver function.

Here is a short intro about liver anatomy and function.

Hepatitis C and Digestive System

The liver performs many functions that are crucial to the wellbeing of the body. One of the most important of which is the production of the substance that is needed to break down fat - bile. The bile is stored in the gallbladder and sent to the beginning section of the small intestine (duodenum). The bile is then combined with stomach acids and digestive fluids from the pancreas; this helps the intestines in absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream. Hepatitis C severely hinders the bile production ability of the liver.

Inflammation also makes digesting food, especially food rich in fat very painful, This causes pain in the upper right portion of the abdomen in infected persons. This is due to a build-up of fluid in the stomach (ascites). A healthy liver produces just the right amount of albumin; this is a protein that helps regulate the amount of fluid in cells; however, a damaged liver does not produce enough albumin and this leads to fluid build-up in the stomach causing pain.

There are some other digestive symptoms to look out for; including vomiting, loss of appetite and nausea. Additionally, stool may become clay-colored or pale, and urine may darken.

Hepatitis C and Central Nervous System

Toxins cause damage to the central nervous system; however, a healthy liver filters these toxins and ensures your body is free of them. When the liver is damaged, it ability to filter these toxins is greatly hampered and the toxins can damage the central nervous system (hepatic encephalopathy). This leads to a variety of symptoms which include weakening of motor skills, sleep disturbances, and sweet or musty breath.

When these symptoms are ignored and the toxins are left to build up, they damage the brain causing confusion, inability to concentrate, forgetfulness and personality changes. If still left untreated, advanced symptoms that may come up include disorientation, agitation, abnormal shaking and slurred speech. In severe cases, a coma might occur.

Hepatitis C and Circulatory System

Apart from the cleansing of toxins from the bloodstream, the liver does the vital function of producing proteins that are needed for a healthy blood and to regulate blood clotting (liver synthesis of coagulation factors). A liver that is not functioning properly creates blood flow problems and increases pressure in the portal vein (the vein that leads to the liver). This causes portal hypertension. Blood is then forced to find an alternate vein to flow through; if a smaller vein is unfortunately chosen, the vein would burst and lead to variceal bleeding (serious internal bleeding).

The liver also extracts iron from the blood and stores it for later use; however, a poorly functioning liver is unable to do that which can result in anemia. Additionally, the liver converts sugars into glucose and then stores it for energy in the form of glycogen. Having too much sugar in the bloodstream leads to insulin resistance and causes type 2 diabetes.

Hepatitis C antibodies in the bloodstream can be detected by carrying out a simple blood test. If antibodies are discovered, it means you have been exposed to the virus. In most cases, a second blood test is needed to confirm a hepatitis C diagnosis.

Hepatitis C and Skin, Hair, and Nails (Integumentary System)

The red blood cells contain a protein molecule called hemoglobin; it helps transports oxygen to cells throughout the body. To obtain and sustain healthy skin, nails and hair, iron is crucial.

Another important substance in hemoglobin is bilirubin. When the liver is incapable of doing its job, bilirubin builds up, causing jaundice (a condition where the skin and the white of the eyes turns yellow).

Hepatitis C and Endocrine and Immune System 

Hormones are regulated by the endocrine system. The thyroid gland which is part of the endocrine system, delivers hormones into the bloodstream. Hepatitis C sometimes causes the immune system to attack and damage thyroid tissues. This can lead to hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid); this in turn causes weight loss and sleep disorders.

It can also cause hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) which makes you feel and act sluggishly. Research carried out by the Hepatitis Trust has shown that this condition is more prevalent in women than in men.

Today I have some good news for Hepatitis C patients with genotype 1 or genotype 4. In the beginning of February 2016, pharmaceutical giant Merck has entered Hepatitis C treatment market by introducing a completely new drug. Under its trademark, it is known as Zepatier.
zepatier elbasvir and grazoprevir

What is more, Zepatier consists of a completely new set of drug molecules - elbasvir and grazoprevir - and is thus different in the mechanism of action from sofosbuvir-based as drugs by Gilead Sciences, Sovaldi and Harvoni. The major difference between this treatment and all the other Hepatitis C treatment that were recently approved by the FDA is the price of Zepatier. Zepatier costs only $54,600 per treatment in the US which compared with Harvoni's price tag of $94,500 is quite a reduction. However, albeit Zepatier is cheaper and will add competition that will hopefully drive down the prices, the costs of being treated for Hepatitis C are and will in the near future remain enormous. This is exactly why we at FixHepC.com are bypassing the system established and paid for by pharmaceutical industry to provide you with affordable Hepatitis C treatments and make it available for everybody in need of them.

Who is Zepatier for - Genotype 1 and 4

Pretty much anybody having Hepatitis C is aware that there are 6 genotypes of Hepatitis C. If you are wondering what sofosbuvir-based treatment is best for you, you can read about genotype specific treatments here. Not all medications treat all genotypes - for example Harvoni, being arguably one of the best medicines out there, is not used (it is not even registered) to treat Hepatitis C genotype 2.

Zepatier has a more narrow therapeutic potential. It can only be used to treat Hepatitis C patients with genotype 1 or 4. Majority of Hepatitis C patients (54%) are suffering from genotype 1 while only 1% of all patients has genotype 4. This means, roughly speaking, that the new Zepatier drug launched by Merck and approved by FDA is intended to be used in about 55% of all Hepatitis C patients.

Elbasvir and Grazoprevir - Zepatier active substances (APIs)

Before we go into details about Zepatier cure rate (which is comparable with other existing Hepatitis C treatments), let us have a look under the hood of this Merck medicine. APIs or Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients are the ones that make any drug achieve its therapeutic effect. In the case of Harvoni, for example, we have sofosbuvir and ledipasvir as active ingredients, and we already know that for modern Hepatitis C treatment we always use two or more active substances in order to be sure HPV was completely eliminated. 

Elbasvir and grazoprevir are active substances that make Zepatier work. Both of them were originally developed by Merck and designed specifically to treat Hepatitis C. These two molecules represent years of work that Merck's drug discovery department has put in to launch Zepatier. Let us look at elbasvir and grazoprevir more closely. 

Elbasvir Mechanism of Action

The first molecule, elbasvir, has been found to inhibit Hepatitis C virus replication by blocking one of the vital proteins (NS5a) that is essential to the replication process. Elbasvir mechanism of action renders NS5a inactive and thus prevents HPV from making more and more viruses. When the replication is stopped, human immune system does the heavy work by targeting and eliminating the remaining virus.

A great thing about elbasvir is that is is very potent and very selective. Potency means that it inhibits NS5a very effectively even at smaller dosages. This is why Zepatier contains only 50 mg of elbasvir. Selectivity is also crucial - elbasvir inhibits NS5a and only NS5a - this means that it does not alter other important processes. Both of these qualities are very important when it comes to Zepatier side effects. Namely, Zepatier side effects are mild because the high cure rate can be achieved with small dosages of a very selective elbasvir molecule.

Grazoprevir Mechanism of Action

Grazoprevir is a second active substance in Zepatier. Instead of targeting NS5a like elbasvir, grazoprevir mechanism of action is directed at inhibiting Hepatitis C virus proteases. With the function that these proteases perform, the HCV is unable to replicate further and is eliminated over the period of several months by body's immune system.

Grazoprevir mode of action is always used as kind of a side-kick of the primary active substance (elbasvir in the case of Zepatier). A good property of grazoprevir is that is useful as a treatment for more resistant HCV genotypes. 

Zepatier Cure Rate and Side Effects

According to clinical studies done by Merck, Zepatier cure rate is very high. For patients with Hepatitis C genotype 1, it was found that Zepatier cures 94-97% of patients. On the other hand, for genotype 4, the numbers are even higher - 97-100% cure rate. You can read everything about how the studies were set up at Merck' Zepatier press release. Some patients are advised to use ribavirin together with Zepatier in order to achieve the best treatment results.

Side effects are mild for a life-saving treatment. These include side effects that are mostly common with other Hepatitis C drugs such as Harvoni and Sovaldi.
zepatier side effects

Here is a list of Zepatier side effects:
  • Nausea
  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Anemia (decrease in number of red blood cells)
  • Stomach pain
  • Allergic reactions (rashes, irritation)
The Zepatier treatment last for 12 or 16 weeks, depending on the genotype and patient's state, and despite the side effects being mild, they can be very bothersome. Having a feeling of nausea for 3 months is not something that one can tolerate with ease.

Zepatier Cost - $54,600 per treatment

The cost of Zepatier is a major think that distinguishes it from other Hepatitis C drugs. Because Merck prices Zepatier at $54,600 per treatment, the drug has already been called a game changer in Hepatitis C treatment. Harvoni, for example, another Hepatitis C treatment, costs $94,500 per treatment in the US.

The much needed competition is here. Zepatier cost might force other big players such as Gilead Sciences and Abbvie to lower the prices of their Hepatitis C medications. However, if you are in need of Hepatitis C drugs, we at FixHepC.com can provide them for less than $2,000. Contact us with your problems and wishes and we will try our best to help every Hepatitis C patient in need.






 

Here is why the VA (US Government) owns sofosbuvir

Thursday, 04 February 2016 12:50 Written by
In the beginning God created heaven and earth. Dr Schinazi created PSI-6130

PSI-6130 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1932527/ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported in part by NIH grants 5R37-AI-041980, 4R37-AI-025899, 5P30-AI-50409 (CFAR), and RR000165 (to Harold M. McClure) and the Department of Veterans Affairs.

R. F. Schinazi is the principal founder and a former director of Pharmasset, Inc. He is also a major shareholder of Pharmasset, Inc., and Idenix Pharmaceuticals
.

Now PSI-7851 comes directly from the development of PSI-6130

www.wikinvest.com/stock/Pharmasset_(VRUS)/Psi-7851

PSI-7977 (aka Sofosbuvir) is the active metabolite of PSI-7851 so is also directly related to PSI-6130...

files.shareholder.com/downloads/VRUS/0x0...4533817aa73/PSI-7977

So the baby (invention) was born from NIH and VA grant money and was created by someone who was 7/8 time employed by the US Government.

So what you say?

Executive Order 10096, issued by President Harry S. Truman in 1950, I say.

www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/matters/matters-9004.html

The main section of the executive order provides that the government shall obtain all rights to any invention made by an employee if any one of the following conditions applies: the invention is made during working hours; the invention is made using either government facilities, equipment, etc., or is made with the help of another government employee who is on official duty; or the invention relates to the official duties of the inventor.

So what did Dr Schinazi do in 2007-2010 and what were his "official duties"?

This document indicates he was employed by the VA as a research chemist and did indeed make the invention in relation to "the official duties of the inventor" as in on government time, in a government lab.....

tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00605911/document

The research presented in this dissertation was performed in the Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology (LOBP) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center/Emory University. LOBP is a drug discovery and preclinical drug development laboratory directed by Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi.

Developed in the 1/8 non government time. This is fantasy, fiction, and BS.

Developed on the government ticket. Owned by the US government.

Brilliant, breakthrough and stellar but not done independently.

And it is all documented.
In a surprising and warm-hearted gesture, the Australian government announced in December 2015 that they will pay for all Hepatitis C medications Australians need. They pledged a whole of $1 billion to the cause.

The announcement came from  Health Minister Sussan Ley, representing Turnbull's government.
Health Minister Sussan Ley hepatitis c

Hepatitis C in Australia by numbers

According to Australian Hepatitis C article, 1 out of 100 people in Australia is suffering from Hepatitis C. With 230,000 Hepatitis C patients, trying to tackle the disease with the new sofosbuvir-based regimen might prove difficult, and it will definitely prove very expensive. 

An additional 10,000 patients per year are being reported. The government went above and beyond claiming they don't only want to try to stop the spread of the disease but wipe it out completely. This is now possible thanks to the newly discovered treatment molecules such as sofosbuvir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir. The older ribavirin molecule is included in the treatment of certain genotypes.

The statement is clear

The government wants to wipe out Hepatitis C within a generation. The treatment will be available to every Australian, even those living abroad, and highlights one of the most daring decisions of Australian government as far as healthcare is concerned. 

How does an average Australian get their hands of subsidized Hepatitis C treatment?

Hepatitis C treatment which normally costs most than $80,000 will now be sold in pharmacies all over Australia for as little as  $37.70 for general patients and $6.10 for concessional patients. The rest of the bill will be paid by the government, according to Minister Sussan Ley. This sounds like a very sweet deal for every Hepatitis C patient and the government is enjoying approval for the help but how likely will the pledged $1 billion help all the patients?

One has to be aware that the price of Harvoni (ledipasvir 90 mg/sofosbuvir 400 mg) for Hepatitis C treatment in Australia is still $80,000. Governments can negotiate these prices but as we've seen in France, UK and Germany, the price was be reduced but not significantly. 

Here is a detailed Hepatitis C factsheet for Australian patients

$1 billion is enough only for 5% of all Hepatitis C patients

Here is the thing. $1 billion is not nearly enough for everybody to get treated. If you do the math, you will realize that at $80,000 per treatment, $1 billion will be used to treat only 12,500 patients. Out of 230,000 registered Hepatitis C patients in Australia, this is still only 5%. 

Annually around 700 patients die because of Hepatitis C or Hepatitis C related illnesses. With the government donation and healing the total of 5% of patients, the number of deaths would theoretically be reduced to 665 people. Which is still a lot.

What can Hepatitis C patients do to get the medicines?

My advice would be to run directly to your doctor and make use of the subsidized medicines - because with such a demand, the funds will soon run out, and 95% of patients will again be struggling to get the medicines.

This is where FixHepC Buyers Club can help you out. We provide you with tested Hepatitis C drugs such as sofosbuvir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir for around $2,000 per treatment (depending on the genotype and treatment). This is quite a reduction in price compared to $80,000 that would need to be paid for the original Harvoni (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir). You can contact us with your inquiries and we will to best of our ability help you.

Hypothetical scenario - What is everybody gets treated by FixHepC provided medications?

Australian government is willing to help eradicate Hepatitis C in Australia with $1 billion. Using the original medicine, this will heal about 12,500 while keeping in mind that every year there are 10,000 new patients. This maths proves this approach being quite ineffective.

On the other hand, FixHepC can offer Hepatitis C treatment for as little as $2,000. With these prices, $1 billion would really go a long way in making Hepatitis C medicines accessible to everyone in need of them. Hypothetically, FixHepC could make a good use of this funds and provide Hepatitis C drugs to 500,000 patients.

This means that all 230,000 Australian patients could be treated and with a 95% success rate of treatment, a great majority of them would be cured. This is a way how Australia could wipe out Hepatitis C in less than a year. What is more, the remaining 270,000 treatments could be used to heal patients in other countries such as New Zealand and Indonesia as well. 

That would be a very important statement in the world. Australia would be looked upon as a country that sees beyond its borders and recognized the need for safe medication of all patients, not just the ones with Australian passports. But in the end, this is more or less just a wishful thinking. 

Step into contact with us and we will help you with Hepatitis C needs. 
Hepatitis C has long been a formidable disease with a high death toll and inadequate treatment. However, in the recent years we have seen much more successful treatment options on a backbone of a newly discovered therapeutic molecule called sofosbuvir

Sofosbuvir is an antiviral molecule, structurally similar to existing antivirals, but it has proven to be of great benefit to Hepatitis C patients - it almost single-handedly skyrocketed the cure rate from 50% to 95% overnight. This has brought the company which brought it to market under the tradename Sovaldi, and later Harvoni, a tremendous success. This molecule is currently the best-selling pharmaceutical ingredient in the world because it plays an essential role in modern Hepatitis C treatment regimen. Today we will have a look at sofosbuvir mechanism of action.

How Sofosbuvir Works

Essentially, sofosbuvir molecule works by preventing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) to replicate itself. One of the necessary components for replication is the RNA molecule of the virus. In order to make a copy of RNA for the new virus to form, a virus uses an enzyme called RNA polymerase to replicate RNA. Basically, out of 1 existing RNA molecules, and additional RNA is formed in order to be used to construct a new virus and facilitate the propagation of Hepatitis C virus - which for a patient means Hepatitis C will manifest more and more in his or her liver.

Sofosbuvir works by inhibiting enzyme RNA polymerase - the cellular worker that performs the replication process. Being unable to make new viruses due to sofosbuvir mechanism of action, the existing Hepatitis C viruses are at the mercy of patient's immune system which is readily eliminating the virus. Without sofosbuvir, Hepatitis C virus has an ability to rebuilt the lost viruses and build up in the liver. When sofosbuvir, however, is allied with patient's own immune system, there is only a 5% probability that the virus will survive (with appropriate treatment regimen). This is why sofosbuvir has a 95% success rate. 

Sofosbuvir Mechanism of Action

Sofosbuvir molecule for mechanism of action
Here is how sofosbuvir molecule looks like in chemical terms. We are about to explain in detail how sofosbuvir works or, in other words, what is sofosbuvir mechanism of action (sofosbuvir MOA).

Sofosbuvir as prodrug

Sofosbuvir is a prodrug - this means that the molecule is chemically changed to a therapeutically useful molecule in a human body. If you look on the structure (on the right); the left part of the molecule remains unchanged while the right part surrounded around P (phosporous atom) will readily change into a therapeutic form with the help of enzymes in the body. In essence, nucleotidyl and nucleoside diphospate kinases are two human enzymes which add phospatic groups to the molecule once the existing groups on P have been cleaved. 

Only when this process and transition from sofosbuvir as prodrug to sofosbuvir as drug is done within the body, the molecule becomes a very effective Hepatitis C treatment.

How does Sofosbuvir enter Hepatitis C virus

The created sofosbuvir drug in the body has to enter Hepatitis C virus in order to be effective in disrupting HCV replication. This is the process that makes sofosbuvir stand out as an effective Hepatitis C therapeutical substance.

It needs to be mentioned that sofosbuvir is not out-of-the-box thinking molecule. Actually, it is very similar to existing antiviral molecules such as acyclovir for example, but one small but very important difference. Every antiviral in this group of therapeutics has to have 3 phosphate groups (Ps in the molecule) to be effective.  Usually, the addition of the first PO 4 -3  phosphate group is the hardest and thus slowest, the other two phosphate groups are then readily added. 
acyclovir mechanism of action
Sofosbuvir was designed to marvelously solve this problem by having the first phosphate group already attached to its structure. Thus there is no need for a lengthy and hard process of adding the group. The other two phosphate groups are quickly added to sofosbuvir and the so-called prodrug is now an active drug.  Of additional benefit are also the groups that are bound to the phosphate group of the molecule - these work by masking the negative (-) electric charge of a phosphate group and by that facilitate the entrance of sofosbuvir into the Hepatitis C virus. 

The results of adding a phosphate group to the original drug is exception. While majority of antiviral molecules were tested to see how effective are they to prevent HCV from either replicating or plain out killing them off, the potency of great majority of them was very low. The added phosphate group separated the mode of action of sofosbuvir from other molecules to such an extent that we don't only see sofosbuvir as very potent; but its ability to suppress HCV spread is so tremendous that the disease as a whole started to be perceived as easily treatable - sofosbuvir had done something no other known molecule was capable of doing - heal 95% of Hepatitis C patients. 

Here is a short video about how Hepatitis C drugs work.
 

Sofosbuvir mode of action

When inside a Hepatitis C virus, sofosbuvir seeks out and selectively attaches to the NS5B polymerase viral protein which is a vital component virus replication. Sofosbuvir mode of action is to disguise itself as a structural part of NS5B. This sofosbuvir mechanism of action is known as a defective substrate. When sofosbuvir binds to the viral protein, it inhibits its further construction. Thus the protein construction is stopped and the protein cannot complete its normal function of replicating the virus. In such a way, the number of Hepatitis C viruses is stagnating and immune system comes in to kill them off one at a time. Without the ability to recover from the heavy losses against the immune system, HCV virus is doomed to be eliminated, which heals the patient of Hepatitis C (viral load goes to zero). 

This is a regular mechanism of action of all nucleotide-like antivirals. For Hepatitis C treatment, other drug molecules are used in Hepatitis C treatment together with sofosbuvir. Mechanism of action of ledipasvir, daclatasvir and ribavirin are not altogether different from sofosbuvir mechanism of action. A natural question is why do Hepatitis C patient have to take two or more drug molecules for treatment if sofosbuvir is already such an exceptionally potent drug with an advanced mechanism of action against Hepatitis C virus?

Why is Hepatitis C always treated with at least two drug molecules?

Sofosbuvir is an extremely effective molecule working against Hepatitis C virus. In fact, sofosbuvir mechanism of action enables it to eliminate more than 99.99% of the virus in a great majority of cases. However, that 0.01% of the virus left could still prove problematic.

This is why a second antiviral molecule is used to eliminate any virus that might have survived. Modern Hepatitis C treatment regimen consist of combination of primarily sofosbuvir, and secondarily ledipasvir, daclatasvir or ribavirin. This is how we can ensure that the treatment is optimal and minimize the risk of HPV developing sofosbuvir drug resistance. 

Experience with viral disease has taught us that virus, which is being endangered with therapeutic drugs, readily mutates and becomes drug-resistant. No drug mechanism of action is capable of completely eliminating the possibility of drug-resistance arising. Especially problematic for the development of drug resistance are viruses that have been treated with a certain drug like sofosbuvir but were not all eliminated. Namely, the remaining ones developed their own mechanism of how to best survive against the drug, rendering them resistant. This is why it is utterly necessary to eliminate all the virus that has come into contact with sofosbuvir or any other therapeutic molecule.

Ledipasvir and Daclatasvir Mechanism of Action

Ledipasvir has the same aim as sofosbuvir - to prevent HCV from replicating; however, the approach it takes is different. Ledipasvir mode of action is to inhibit protein  viral phosphoprotein, NS5A, which is involved in viral replication, assembly, and secretion. The same protein is also targeted by daclatasvir.
 
Hepatitis C has long been a formidable disease with a high death toll and inadequate treatment. However, in the recent years we have seen much more successful treatment options on a backbone of a newly discovered therapeutic molecule called sofosbuvir

Sofosbuvir is an antiviral molecule, structurally similar to existing antivirals, but it has proven to be of great benefit to Hepatitis C patients - it almost single-handedly skyrocketed the cure rate from 50% to 95% overnight. This has brought the company who invented brought it to market under the tradename Sovaldi, and later Harvoni, tremendous success. This molecule is currently the best-selling pharmaceutical ingredient in the world, because it plays an essential role in modern Hepatitis C treatment regimen.

How Sofosbuvir Works

Essentially, sofosbuvir molecule works by preventing Hepatitis C virus (HCV) to replicate itself. One of the necessary components for replication is the RNA molecule of the virus. In order to make a copy of RNA for the new virus to form, virus uses an enzyme called RNA polymerase to replicate RNA. Basically, out of 1 existing RNA molecules, and additional RNA is formed in order to be used to construct a new virus and facilitate the propagation of Hepatitis C virus - which for a patient means Hepatitis C will manifest more and more in his or her liver.

Sofosbuvir works by inhibiting enzyme RNA polymerase - the cellular worker that performs the replication process. Being unable to make new viruses due to sofosbuvir mechanism of action, the existing Hepatitis C viruses are at the mercy of patient's immune system which is readily eliminating the virus. Without sofosbuvir, Hepatitis C virus has an ability to rebuilt the lost viruses and build up in the liver. When sofosbuvir, however, is allied with patient's own immune system, there is only a 5% probability that the virus will survive (with appropriate treatment regimen). This is why sofosbuvir has a 95% success rate. 

Sofosbuvir Mechanism of Action

Sofosbuvir molecule for mechanism of action
Here is how sofosbuvir molecule looks like in chemical terms. We are about to explain in detail how sofosbuvir works or, in other words, what is sofosbuvir mechanism of action (sofosbuvir MOA).

Sofosbuvir as prodrug

Sofosbuvir is a prodrug - this means that the molecule is chemically changed to a therapeutically useful molecule in a human body. If you look on the structure (on the right); the left part of the molecule remains unchanged while the right part surrounded around P (phosporous atom) will readily change into a therapeutic form with the help of enzymes in the body. In essence, nucleotidyl and nucleoside diphospate kinases are two human enzymes which add phospatic groups to the molecule once the existing groups on P have been cleaved. 

Only when this process and transition from sofosbuvir as prodrug to sofosbuvir as drug is done within the body, the molecule becomes a very effective Hepatitis C treatment.

How does Sofosbuvir enter Hepatitis C virus

The created sofosbuvir drug in the body has to enter Hepatitis C virus in order to be effective in disrupting HCV replication. This is the process that makes sofosbuvir stand out as an effective Hepatitis C therapeutical substance.

It needs to be mentioned that sofosbuvir is not out-of-the-box thinking molecule. Actually, it is very similar to existing antiviral molecules such as acyclovir for example, but one small but very important difference. Every antiviral in this group of therapeutics has to have 3 phosphate groups (Ps in the molecule) to be effective.  Usually, the addition of the first PO 4 -3  phosphate group is the hardest and thus slowest, the other two phosphate groups are then readily added. 
acyclovir mechanism of action

Sofosbuvir was designed to marvelously solve this problem by having the first phosphate group already attached to its structure. Thus there is no need for a lengthy and hard process of adding the group. The other two phosphate groups are quickly added to sofosbuvir and the so-called prodrug is now an active drug.  Of additional benefit are also the groups that are bound to the phosphate group of the molecule - these work by masking the negative (-) electric charge of a phosphate group and by that facilitate the entrance of sofosbuvir into the virus. 


 Prior to the discovery of sofosbuvir, a variety of nucleoside analogs had been examined as antihepatitis C treatments, but these exhibited relatively low potency. This low potency arises in part because the enzymatic addition of the first of the three phosphate groups of the triphosphate is slow. The design of sofosbuvir, based on the protide approach, avoids this slow step by building the first phosphate group into the structure of the drug during synthesis. Additional groups are attached to the phosphorus to temporarily mask the two negative charges of the phosphate group, thereby facilitating entry of the drug into the infected cell.[30][31] The NS5B protein is a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase critical for the viral reproduction cycle.

ASHM Gearing Up For PBS Listing

Monday, 01 February 2016 04:00 Written by
Dear Colleague,
 
ASHM is running the Treatment of hepatitis C with Direct Acting Antivirals course at the Rydges Melbourne, Victoria on Saturday, 20 February 2016. This course is being delivered as part of the Control and Elimination within AuStralia of HEpatitis C from people living with HIV (CEASE) project in partnership with the Kirby Institute.
 
This full day, face-to-face course is designed to up-skill the primary care-based workforce in the current assessment and treatment of HCV infection, to enable rapid scale-up of interferon-free therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAA) for HCV. The course is designed for HIV prescribers, but may also appeal to General Practitioners, Sexual Health Physicians, OST prescribers, clinicians working in AOD settings, custodial settings and Aboriginal Medical Services.
 
This is a FREE course, which has been approved for 40 Category 1 RACGP points. A small number of travel scholarships for rural and regional medical practitioners to attend may be available upon request.
 
I have attached a flyer with further details – Feel free to forward to your colleagues and extended networks. To register for this course please go to the courses page on the ASHM website http://www.ashm.org.au/courses.
 
Please do not hesitate to contact me via return e-mail if you have any queries.
 
Kind regards,

Annabelle Kennett
Project Officer
National Policy and Education
ashm | Supporting the HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Workforce
Tel: +61 2 8204 0742 | Fax: +61 2 8204 0782 | E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
LMB 5057 DARLINGHURST NSW 1300 | www.ashm.org.au -

CDC Hepatitis C Infographic

New age Hepatitis C medicines are more than just a medical wonder. They gave humanity an ability to save lives. 

How good are we at saving those lives?

More people die of Hepatitis C than HIV/AIDS

Hepatitis C is a serious disease that ultimately results in death of patients. Approximately 500,000 people die from Hepatitis C and related illnesses in 2013 alone, more than 20,000 of them were US citizens. To put it in perspective: HIV/AIDS has longed been talked about as a very serious disease with a disastrous death toll. However, according to Dr. Laura J. Martin of WebMD nowadays more people die from Hepatitis C than from HIV/AIDS.

Today, there are more than 3.2 million of Hepatitis C patients in the US alone. 

In late 2013, however, humanity had a break-through that should by all accounts drastically change lives of people living with Hepatitis C. A new drug, Sovaldi (400mg sofosobuvir), was approved in December 2013 on the US market.

With it, more than 90% of people with Hepatitis C can be cured. But are they really being cured?

Standard Interferon-based treatment

For any disease to be deemed a very problematic one, there are two conditions:

  1. Disease is serious (causes severe injuries or death)
  2. There is a lack of efficient cure

Polio, for example, was a very serious disease with a disastrous outcome. However, after discovering an efficient polio vaccine, the number of patient and number of death relating to polio was reduced dramatically. 

Hepatitis C prior to 2013 was a very problematic disease because it caused death via liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, and the only treatment we had was 50% efficient. 

Hepatitis C patients were put on 6-months long interferon-based treatment which consisted of injecting oneself with interferon and taking additional oral medicines such as ribavirin (antiviral molecule). Nonetheless, for 1 out of every 2 patients treated the treatment has been proven to be unsuccessful. 

There was a need for an efficient cure. Newly-discovered sofosbuvir molecule was the answer.

New age Hepatitis C treatment - Sofosbuvir-based medications

With the launch of Sovaldi and Harvoni medicines by a company Gilead Sciences, humanity finally attained a very effective cure for Hepatitis C. Being an all-oral regimen, sofosbuvir pills are taken on a daily basis for 12-weeks (standard treatment), have mild side effects and, above all, more than 95% cure rate. This is what in pharmaceutical industry refer to as a game-changer. Now almost everyone can be cured and Hepatitis C suddenly became an easily curable disease. 

Does anybody die of Hepatitis C now?

Simple answer is 'YES'. While the number of deaths has decreased from 500,000 per year, there are still hundreds of thousands of people dying every year. The reason: Hepatitis C.

hepatitis c death statistics

But if we know Hepatitis C is so easily treatable nowadays, why are people still dying?

Pharmaceutical industry is a profitable business (Money>Patients)

When we spoke about Harvoni and Sovaldi being a game-changer in industrial industry, it was meant more in profits than in saving lives. Here are two simple reasons why people even in the developed world are still dying of Hepatitis C.

  1. Original Sovaldi (400mg sofosbuvir) costs $80,000 per treatment (US prices)
  2. Original Harvoni (90mg ledipasvir/400mg sofosbuvir) costs $94,500 per treatment (US prices)

With this in mind, let us calculate the US Hepatitis C market. If we know there are 3,2 million Hepatitis C patients, each in need of an $80,000 cure, the total comes to staggering number: Gilead Sciences is looking to sell more than $250 billion worth of Hepatitis C medicine to patients who can die without it.

Here is a horrifying realization. We have people who will die without the cure. We have the cure. But people who are dying cannot afford the cure because it is priced extremely high. 'What have we come to as a society?' is the right question here.

Way to get Hepatitis C medicines without having to pay massive sums of money

Gilead Sciences, company that markets Sovaldi and Harvoni, offered licences to Indian manufacturers to produce generic version of sofosbuvir-based medicines. In short, India refused to recognise a level of innovation for sofosbuvir molecule that would grant Gilead Sciences a patent and monopoly over Hepatitis C market in India. 

This created a loophole. This loophole is now saving lives. 

FixHepC Buyers Club to the rescue

All around the world there are Hepatitis C patients that will die without getting the cure - and they are not getting it because the prices of the drugs are so extremely high. This is where FixHepC Buyers Club comes in. 

It is our mission to deliver life-saving Hepatitis C medicines to your doorstep for a negligible cost. We have set up a supply chain consisting of sofosbuvir production, packaging and distribution across the world. It is our hope this will bring down the Hepatitis C death toll under 100,000 and that in near future Hepatitis C death cases will be as few in number as possible with sofosbuvir-based medication. 

We strive to deliver generic Harvoni anywhere on the planet for less than $2,000 per treatment in about 2-3 weeks. With this prices, we could cure all Hepatitis C patients in the US for less than $7 billion. 

Are thing in Hepatitis C market likely to change?

Hardly. Pharmaceutical industry holds on to patents for drugs that last for 20- to 25-years. During this time, the prices of original Sovaldi and Harvoni will be extremely high, and Hepatitis C patients don't have 20 or more year to wait for patents to expire. 

If you have Hepatitis C, act now. The FixHepC Buyers Club will help you every step of the way, from getting the necessary medicines to monitoring your treatment success. You can call us or send us an email with your inquiries to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A short excerpt from a recently discovered audio recording of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. speaking at Syracuse University in July of 1965.

There are some things so dear, some things so precious, some things so eternally true that they're worth dying for. And if a man has not discovered something that he will die for, he isn't fit to live.
>

Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle Video

Tuesday, 12 January 2016 11:35 Written by

At FixHepC our goal is to see everyone, everywhere with Hepatitis C treated with affordable DAA medications so that no man, woman or child is left behind. The target is nothing less that sending this disease to the annals of history, as was done for smallpox.

Sounds impossible? Nothing is impossible (with the possible exception of breaking the Law's of Thermodynamics, but that's a different story, and the Big Bang Theory suggest maybe even that is possible).

First consider this:

And now consider what Lexus have just achieved:

The Lexus Hoverboard uses magnetic levitation to achieve amazing frictionless movement. Liquid nitrogen cooled superconductors and permanent magnets combine to allow Lexus to create the impossible.

Nothing is impossible - it may take a lot of work, by a lot of dedicated people - but hey, we've invented a Hoverboard and curing HCV is a simple willpower and logistics problem.

E = mc2

Everyone, everywhere = manufacturing * political clout * cooperative effort

PBS Listing - Some Tears In Heaven

Wednesday, 30 December 2015 06:15 Written by

They (who are they anyway) say, if it sounds too good to be true it probably is.

If you are GT1 or GT3 then the PBS looks like it is going to come through for you (and that is 90% of all patients), however if you're GT2 then your only option is Sofosbuvir +Ribavirin and if you're GT4 GT5 or GT6 then you're still looking at Interferon and Ribavirin + Sofosbuvir.

Here is the draft of the Australian HCV-DAA-Protocols that are in circulation and happened to appear in my email.

You can see what they mean for you using our beta Decision Support Tool - just put in your details to see what options are going to be offered (assuming there are no changes between now and then). At the moment the AASLD and EASL guidelines have not been added, but the PEG/Rib free option implements a subset of them.

PBS Listing - Almost Heaven

Monday, 21 December 2015 11:52 Written by

I don't have permission to attribute this but the source is impeccable:

Hi James

I think we should publicise the following key features of the PBS arrangement:

  1. All patients (>=18 years) with chronic hepatitis C will be able to access treatment through PBS. No restrictions based on liver disease stage or otherwise.
  2. The PBS is an uncapped program. There are no caps on number of patients who can access these treatments.
  3.  GPs will be able to prescribe following consultation with a specialist and community dispensing allowed.

The last point is something I am sure you will be pleased with. There apparently will not be an accreditation required, just an arrangement with a specialist clinician.

Kind regards

<Not John Denver>

Which is 100% awesome news.


And here is the Minister's Official Statement:

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/publishing.nsf/Content/health-mediarel-yr2015-ley154.htm

OMG they are serious, although there is a get out of payment free card:

Ms Ley said like access to all PBS medicines, funding was demand driven and the Government would account for any potential variations in spending accordingly. 

And here is the Official Fact Sheet

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ministers/publishing.nsf/Content/FAE2B65331456243CA257F20006D4C48/$File/SL-154.pdf


And here is what the AMA say:

https://ama.com.au/ausmed/ley-tries-stymie-opposition-hep-c-link

Yes it will be paid for by the pathology cuts.....


And here is what Australian Doctor had to say about it:

Hepatitis C cures to be listed on the PBS

Alice Klein | 21 December, 2015 

The PBS listing of four new hepatitis C drugs will enable patients to clear the infection in as little as eight weeks, the Federal Government says.

The antivirals sofosbuvir (Sovaldi), sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (Harvoni), daclatasvir (Daklinza), and ribavirin (Ibavyr), which cost as much as $100,000 for a full course of treatment on the private market, will be made available through the PBS on 1 March 2016.

Combinations of the new-generation antivirals will be used to target the six different genotypes of hepatitis C, with the cure rate expected to be more than 90%. 

"With this announcement, there is great hope we can not only halt the spread of this deadly infectious virus, but eradicate it altogether in time," Health Minister Sussan Ley said on Sunday. 

GPs will be able to prescribe the four hepatitis C drugs in, or following, consultation with a specialist, according to a factsheet published by the minister's office.

All hepatitis C patients will be eligible for the drugs on the clinical advice of their treating doctors.

A spokesperson told Australian Doctor that GPs will be able to consult with a specialist by phone, mail, email or videoconference.  

The new treatments are better tolerated and require shorter durations than existing therapies, he said.

Treatment times range from 8 to 24 weeks depending on the hepatitis C genotype, the drug used and the patient's treatment history. 

Because the prevalence of hepatitis C is markedly higher in prisons, the new antivirals will also be made available to prisoners through the PBS, even though their healthcare costs are usually the responsibility of state and territory governments. 

Hepatitis Australia has welcomed the news, with CEO Helen Tyrrell calling it a "watershed" for the 230,000 Australians living with the disease. 

"So many people have been anxiously waiting for this announcement. This is wonderful news and it is such a relief to have an end to the uncertainty," she said. 

However, some doctors are unhappy that the $1 billion funding for the new hepatitis C drugs has come at the expense of funds being redirected from other health services. 

Ms Ley has confirmed that budget cuts to pathology and radiology announced last week as part of the mid-year economic and fiscal outlook were made so the government could fund the hepatitis C treatments. 

The AMA said it was wrong to cut funding for pathology and diagnostic imaging in order to fund one specific treatment. 

"They shouldn't be using patients to justify these funding cuts," AMA President Professor Brian Owler told News Corp. 

"I don't think there is a place for moral debate in health policy. As doctors we treat everyone, it's not about having a debate about more deserving citizens than others."

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